Obesity is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. All of which are cardiovascular risk factors. So it is evidently clear that there is a significant link between obesity and heart disease. Although obesity clusters with these risk factors, it also has its own independent and additional effect on the risk of cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke.
Obesity is a risk factor for Cardio Vascular Disease with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of obesity on most vascular outcome measures is not entirely removed after adjustment for these known risk factors, suggesting that obesity has an independent effect which is additive to that of these known vascular risk factors. In recent years , prevalence of obesity has reached alarming levels, posing a significant threat to public health. Not only does obesity affect our over-all well-being, but it also increases the risk of various health conditions, including heart disease. In this article , we will explore the intricate relationship between obesity and heart disease, will find out the causes and ways to combat the risk factors of heart disease caused by the obesity.
Obesity as Epidemic:
Obesity has become a global epidemic, affecting millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by excessive body weight due to an accumulation of fat, often caused by an imbalance between calorie intake and expenditure. Sedentary lifestyles, poor dietary habits, and genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity which increases heart diseases to the great extent.
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Understand the Link with Obesity and Heart Disease:
Obesity and heart diseases are intricately linked, with obesity serving as a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular problems. Excess weight puts added strain on the heart and blood vessels, leading to a range of cardiovascular conditions.
Obesity that increases the heart diseases, includes:
1. Obesity and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD):
Obesity increases the risk of vascular disease, both coronary heat disease and peripheral vascular disease. Obesity is often associated with other metabolic risk factors for vascular disease. Although increasing BMI correlates positively with risk of vascular disease, the degree of abdominal adiposity appears to confer the greatest risk. The adverse effects of abdominal fat distribution may even be seen in relatively lean individuals. Not only is the risk of experiencing a vascular event increased by obesity, particularly central obesity, but the consequences of vascular atherosclerotic plaque rupture may be magnified by the prothrombotic and inflammatory metabolic profile that accompanies visceral obesity. CAD occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the heart. Treatment options may occasionally be restricted by extreme degrees of obesity resulting in unfavorable outcomes.
2. Obesity and Hypertension:
Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, and weight loss results in high blood pressure as well as regression of some of its effects on the heart circulation. The precise pathophysiology causing hypertension in obesity is not currently fully understood but it probably involves increases in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance mediated by a combination of increased SNS activity, hyperinsulinemia, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated blood pressure levels. The increased weight requires the heart to work harder to pump blood, resulting in higher blood pressure. Over time, this can lead to heart damage and other complications.
3. Obesity and Stroke:
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of stroke even after controlling for its associations with known stroke risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The precise mechanism for this association is not fully understood, although it is increasingly recognized that the sequence of obesity leading to sleep apnea, which is a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation and thereby stroke, may account for some of the observed risk.
4. Obesity and Heart Failure:
It is thought that heart failure in obesity derives from remodeling of the heart in response to pressure and volume stresses, particularly in a context of atherogenic risk factors for coronary artery disease. This is particularly evident where obesity is complicated by obesity sleep apnea. The outcome is a mixture of eccentric hypertrophy followed by dilation and eventually heart failure. This pattern has been termed “obesity cardiomyopathy”. Obesity places additional strain on the heart, weakening its ability to pump blood effectively. As a result, the heart may become enlarged and less efficient, leading to heart failure.
Combating Obesity and Heart Disease:
1. Take medical advice:
Patients with obesity should be screened for cardiovascular risk factors on a regular basis by their physicians. These risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance and hyperlipidemia. Advice should be given where appropriate on smoking cessation and support and advice offered to promote weight loss.
2. Regular Physical Exercise:
Regular exercise not only helps in weight loss management but also strengthens the cardiovascular system. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week. Aerobic exercise of moderate intensity can reduce the heart disease risk independent of any associated weight loss.
3. Life Style Changes:
Where obesity is complicated by hypertension, weight loss is associated with an improvement in blood pressure. The management of hypertension in this situation should always start with lifestyle advice centered on diet and exercise along with salt and alcohol restriction. Most patients will require combination anti-hypertension drug therapy. Obese patients with T2DM or impaired glucose tolerance have a reduced risk of cardiovascular events when prescribed metformin.
4. Healthy Eating Plan:
The patients suffering from heart disease with obesity should stick on healthy diet plan suggested but nutrient adviser if needed. A well-balanced diet is essential for maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of heart disease. Consume foods enriched with nutrient-dense, such as – fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats. Limit the intake of processed foods, sugary beverages and high-fat snacks.
5. Get Sufficient Sleep:
Adequate sleep is crucial for maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of heart disease. Try to get 7 -9 hours of quality sleep each night to support overall health and well-being. Obesity sleep apnea should be actively considered in all obese individuals, especially where there is refractory hypertension or daytime somnolence. In that case a medical advice should be taken from your physician.
It is evidently true that obesity and heart disease are significantly linked together resulting even the sudden death. The excess body weight increases the risk of heart disease. However, in primary stages, by understanding the link between obesity and heart disease and executing the effective lifestyle changes, anyone can eliminate the risk factors of heart disease and maintain a healthy body weight. Remember, precaution is better than prevention of obesity and heart disease.